Table 5

Classification of bleeding during bronchoscopy

No bleedingTraces of blood with no need for continuous suctioning
 Bleeding stops spontaneously
Mild bleedingContinued suctioning of blood from the airways
 Bleeding stops spontaneously
Moderate bleedingIntubation of the biopsied segment with the bronchoscope into the wedge position
 Use of adrenaline or cold saline to stop bleeding
Severe bleedingPlacement of bronchus blocker or catheter, applying fibrin sealant
Resuscitation, blood transfusion, admission to critical care unit or death
  • Adapted from Ernst et al.32