Table 1

Patients and pleural fluid

ParameterAllTBNon-TBp Value
Number of patients (N)775819NA
 Age (years) ±SD33.4±12.830.8±11.441.1±14.10.002
 Male gender (%)59.760.357.91
 HIV-positive, n (%)23 (29.9)19 (32.8)4 (21.1)<0.001
Effusion size
 Small or moderate, n (%)39 (50.6)25 (43.1)14 (73.7)0.01
 Large, n (%)38 (49.4)33 (56.9)5 (26.3)0.03
Pleural fluid
 pH ± SD7.34±0.177.34±0.127.34±0.260.92
 Protein (g/l) ± SD60.3±20.364.5±17.347.9±25.50.015
 LDH (IU/l) ± SD1178±2466947±14251859±42590.37
 ADA (IU/l) ± SD88.1±45.398.5±37.553.8±52.50.004
 Lymphocytes (%)62.5±28.566.8±25.948.6±32.90.056
 Lymphocytic effusion* (%)80.984.668.160.16
Pleural fluid culture yield for MTB
 100 ml volume, n (%)31 (53.5)0.75
 5 ml volume, n (%)29 (50)
Time to culture positivity for MTB
 100 ml volume (h) ± SD329±1020.055
 5 ml volume (h) ± SD376±160
  • Continuous data were compared using Student t test as data were normally distributed and equal variance was assumed. Proportions were compared using χ2 test and Fisher's exact test for non-matched proportions and McNemar's test for matched proportions.

  • * Lymphocytes/neutrophils >1.

  • ADA, adenosine deaminase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MTB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; TB, tuberculosis.