Table 1

Characteristics of patients at risk of tuberculosis in the pre-cART era (before1 January 1997) and after cART initiation

Before 1 January 1997After cART initiation
Number at risk of TB917511178
Total person-years of follow-up3590657104
Number of TB diagnoses243120
TB as first AIDS-defining events184100
Number of pulmonary TB diagnoses154 (63%)74 (64%)
Incidence rate of TB (95% CI) per 1000 person-years6.8 (5.9 to 7.7)2.2 (1.7 to 2.5)
Median (IQR) CD4 count at TB diagnosis, cells/mm3 125 (40–286)195 (55–419)
Median (IQR) HIV-RNA at TB diagnosis, log10 copies/ml*4.2 (1.8–5.3)
Median (IQR) HIV test interval, years†0.8 (0.4–1.3)0.8 (0.3–1.4)
Number of TB diagnosesNumber of TB diagnoses
Risk group
 Sex between men4587 (50%)766253 (56%)46
 Sex between women and men1691 (18%)312904 (26%)34
 Injecting drug use2376 (26%)1181506 (13%)37
 Other/unknown524 (6%)18515 (5%)3
Women2006 (22%)482449 (22%)31
Geographical origin‡
 Mid–low TB incidence§6350 (69%)1977907 (71%)88
 High–mid TB incidence¶202 (2%)17339 (3%)7
 Very high TB incidence: sub-Saharan Africa126 (1%)9495 (4%)8
 Unknown2500 (27%)302437 (22%)17
  • 4575 patients contributed to both analyses.

  • *HIV-RNA not routinely performed before 1997.

  • †Time between last negative and first positive HIV antibody test dates.

  • ‡All patients are in care in high-income countries.

  • §Mid–low incidence regions: Western Europe, North America, Oceania, Middle East and Latin America.

  • ¶High–mid incidence regions: Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Africa, South Asia, East Asia and the Caribbean.

  • cART, combination antiretroviral therapy; TB, tuberculosis.