Table 2

Number of observed (O) and expected (E) cases, rate ratios* (RRs) with upper and lower 95% CIs for pneumococcal disease (including pneumonia, septicaemia and meningitis) in people with selected mental disorders compared with the reference cohort†

Lobar pneumonia and pneumococcal disease, combinedLobar pneumoniaPneumococcal pneumonia
DiagnosisDatasetOERR95% CIOERR95% CIOERR95% CI
SchizophreniaLHES1922827.72.32.2 to 2.41859791.82.42.3 to 2.57536.52.11.6 to 2.6
ORLS26727.12.51.9 to 3.26626.12.62.0 to 3.3
ORLS15030.91.61.2 to 2.24829.01.71.2 to 2.2
Bipolar disorderLHES28111259.92.32.2 to 2.327291217.92.32.2 to 2.49745.42.21.8 to 2.6
ORLS29442.72.21.8 to 2.79141.42.21.8 to 2.7
ORLS18459.21.41.1 to 1.88256.61.51.2 to 1.8
DepressionLHES49732444.52.12.0 to 2.148452369.82.12.0 to 2.115878.72.11.7 to 2.4
ORLS2229117.22.01.7 to 2.3226114.02.01.8 to 2.393.32.91.3 to 5.6
ORLS1174121.81.51.2 to 1.7165115.31.51.2 to 1.773.12.30.9 to 4.9
AnxietyLHES2122997.02.22.1 to 2.22069969.32.22.1 to 2.37431.22.41.9 to 3.0
ORLS26129.22.11.6 to 2.76128.32.21.7 to 2.8
ORLS112992.01.41.2 to 1.712386.71.41.2 to 1.7
  • The numbers in the columns for lobar pneumonia and for pneumococcal pneumonia exceed those in the column for ‘pneumococcal disease, combined’ because some people had a diagnosis of each of the first two conditions on different occasions; and because the ‘pneumococcal disease, combined’ totals also include cases of pneumococcal septicaemia and meningitis.

  • *Adjusted for sex, age in 5-year bands, time period in single calendar years in the ORLS1 and LHES datasets, and also adjusted for district of residence in ORLS1 and ORLS2, and for region of residence and deprivation score associated with patient's area of residence, in quintiles, in the LHES dataset.

  • †Conditions used in reference cohort, with Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) code edition 4 for operations and International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) code for diagnosis (with equivalent codes used for other coding editions): adenoidectomy (OPCS4 E20), appendectomy (H01–H03), dilation and curettage (Q10–Q11), hip replacement (W37–W39), knee replacement (W40–W42), squint (ICD10 H49–H51), cataract (H25), varicose veins (I83), haemorrhoids (I84), deflected septum (J34.2), nasal polyp (J33), impacted tooth and other disorders of teeth (K00–K03), inguinal hernia (K40), in-growing nail, toenail and other diseases of nails (L60), bunion (M20.1), internal derangement of knee (M23), dislocations, sprains and strains (S03, S13, S23, S33, S43, S53, S63, S73, S83, S93), head injury (S06 excluded from analysis of meningitis), selected limb fractures (S42, S52, S62, S82, S92), superficial injury and contusion (S00, S10, S20, S30, S40, S50, S60, S70, S80, S90), contraceptive management (Z30).

  • ‡Data not shown for pneumonia and pneumococcal disease with non-significant results and five or fewer observed cases.

  • LHES, linked Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality statistics; ORLS, Oxford Record Linkage Study.