Table 1

Selected patient characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, therapies and tests (%)

OverallFull cohortPropensity matched*
Day 1–2 β-blocker treatedUntreated or late treatedDay 1–2 β-blocker treatedUntreated or late treated
35082 (100%)10070 (28.7%)25012 (71.3%)9161 (50%)9161 (50%)
Underlying cardiovascular condition
 Ischaemic heart disease25.632.
 Heart failure31.140.227.537.637.7
 Prior MI 11.418.08.815.315.3
Women 58.755.260.156.857.0
Age, median (IQR) (years) 72 (64–79)73 (65–80)72 (63–79)73 (65–80)73 (65–80)
Principal diagnosis
 Respiratory failure13.011.613.611.711.9
Attending physician specialty
 Internal medicine/hospitalist59.860.959.460.661.3
 Family/general medicine19.719.619.719.919.2
 Diabetes 31.536.329.535.535.6
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter 16.820.715.219.820.2
 Depression 15.815.
 Chronic pulmonary disease 13.111.713.711.712.0
 Secondary bacterial pneumonia §
 Renal failure 10.815.78.813.914.2
 Peripheral vascular disease 9.312.08.211.511.2
 Valvular disease
 Neurological disorders6.
 Chronic pulmonary heart disease
Early therapies and tests
 Antibiotics ** 89.388.789.688.989.3
 High-dose steroids 89.687.890.388.588.3
 Anticholinergic bronchodilators
 Long-acting β2 agonists 39.937.640.838.237.5
 Non-invasive ventilation
 Arterial blood gas 46.742.848.343.743.5
 Brain natriuretic peptide test60.765.558.864.665.1
Cardiovascular agents
 Loop diuretics 40.751.036.548.548.8
 Thiazide diuretics13.713.913.613.914.0
 Aldosterone antagonists
 Digoxin 10.613.79.412.812.7
 Calcium blockers 35.329.937.531.932.5
 Antiplatelets 45.458.939.956.957.4
 Statins 34.647.629.444.143.8
 Warfarin 9.613.
 Nicotine cessation medications
 Nitrates 16.925.013.622.622.7
Number of AE-COPD admissions in prior year
Hospital characteristics
 Bed size §
  0–200 beds17.517.717.418.316.9
  201–300 beds19.219.819.019.919.3
  301–500 beds37.035.437.635.336.4
  501+ beds26.427.126.126.627.4
 Census region
 Urban status § 83.582.883.882.684.1
  • * 9161 of 10 070 (90.8%) β-blocker treated cases matched.

  • Indicates statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups in full cohort (p value<0.05).

  • Kruskal-Wallis tests (p value<0.05).

  • § Indicates statistically significant difference between treated and untreated groups in propensity-matched cohort (p value<0.05).

  • ** Antibiotics included: aminoglycosides, other anti-infectives, sulfonamides, anti-MRSA medications, arbapenems, cephalosporins, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, tetracyclines.

  • Additional characteristics and comorbidities evaluated in the model but not reported in the table include insurance payer, paralysis, liver disease, AIDS, lymphoma, metastatic cancer, chronic blood loss anaemia, drug abuse, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, polycythaemia, psychoses, alcohol abuse, solid tumour without metastasis, weight loss, rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular disease, sleep apnoea, pulmonary circulation disease.

  • ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; AE-COPD, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ARB, angiotensin–renin blocker; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI, myocardial infarction; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.