Table 1

Characteristics of participants (n=126)

Age, years, median (IQR)56.0 (38.7–71.4)
Male, n (%)89 (71)
Duration of symptoms prior to presentation, median (IQR)14 (7–28)
Co-morbidity, n (%)86 (68)
 Chronic respiratory disease15 (12)
 Excess alcohol consumption17 (14)
 Diabetes mellitus13 (10)
 Patients with neutropenia on admission blood tests0 (0)
Pleural fluid characteristics
 Visibly purulent, n (%)104 (83)
 Positive standard microbiology, n (%)69 (55)
  Streptococcus pneumoniae12
  Anginosus group of streptococci13
  Other streptococci5
  Staphylococcus aureus9
  Anaerobic or mixed aerobic/anaerobic infection16
  Mixed aerobic bacteria8
  Gram-negative bacteria6
 pH in patients without frankly purulent fluid, median (IQR)6.9 (6.7–7.1)
 Glucose (mg/dl), median (IQR)18 (11–61)
 Lactate dehydrogenase (IU/l), median (IQR)6000 (1629–20000)
Patient laboratory characteristics
 Total white cell count (×109/l), median (IQR)14.7 (10.3–22.0)
 C-reactive protein (mg/l), median (IQR)187 (83–271)
 Albumin (g/l), median (IQR)27 (22–31)