Table 3

Sex-, age- and BMI-adjusted mortality hazard ratios and corresponding 95% CIs associated with the six longitudinal spirometric patterns

Longitudinal spirometric patternsUnderlying cause of death
All-causeHeart diseaseCancerLung cancerCOPDStrokeDiabetes
Consistent normal (N=883)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Recurrent restrictive (N=65)1.7 (1.3 to 2.3)2.0 (1.3 to 3.1)1.0 (0.5 to 2.2)0.7 (0.1 to 5.5)2.0 (0.2 to 17.3)2.4 (0.9 to 6.3)8.0 (2.9 to 21.8)
Inconsistent restrictive (N=60)1.9 (1.4 to 2.6)2.7 (1.7 to 4.3)1.4 (0.7 to 3.0)1.5 (0.4 to 6.6)No events3.5 (1.2 to 9.8)6.0 (1.9 to 19.2)
Recurrent obstructive (N=153)2.4 (1.9 to 2.9)2.1 (1.4 to 3.0)1.4 (0.8 to 2.2)3.2 (1.5 to 6.6)38.0 (15.6 to 92.6)6.2 (2.9 to 13.4)5.4 (2.0 to 15.2)
Inconsistent obstructive (N=52)1.2 (0.8 to 1.7)1.3 (0.8 to 2.3)0.7 (0.3 to 1.8)No events4.2 (0.8 to 21.1)1.5 (0.3 to 6.5)1.0 (0.1 to 7.7)
Mixed restrictive/obstructive (N=112)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)0.7 (0.3 to 1.3)1.1 (0.4 to 3.4)10.9 (4.0 to 30.0)1.0 (0.3 to 3.0)4.7 (1.9 to 11.9)
Number of events72826814145614838*
  • N=1325 because 43 subjects had missing information for BMI.

  • * Because only 10 subjects had diabetes identified as underlying cause of death, in Cox models for diabetes mortality events were defined as ‘deaths with diabetes indicated as either underlying cause of death or coexisting condition on the death certificate’.

  • BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.