Table 4

Revised cardiac risk index

Number of factorsRisk of major cardiac complication*
00.4%
11%
27%
≥311%
  • Risk factors: high-risk type of surgery (includes all thoracic surgery), ischaemic heart disease, history of congestive cardiac failure, history of cerebrovascular disease, insulin therapy for diabetes, preoperative serum creatinine >177 μmol/l.

  • * Cardiac complications defined as myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema, ventricular fibrillation or primary cardiac arrest, complete heart block. The risks have been quoted from the validation cohort.