Table 4

GC polymorphism and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

PopulationPhenotypeNo. of cases/controlsRisk alleleProtective alleleRef
CaucasianCanadaCOPD75/64GC261
CanadaCOPD104/413GC260
IcelandCOPD
Chronic bronchitis
112/183
48/183

GC1F

GC2
110
RussiaCOPD298/23756
USACOPD127 families and
304/441
54
DenmarkRapid decline of FEV1283/30855
AsianTatarCOPD298/237GC1FGC256
JapanCOPD
Rapid decline of FEV1Emphysema
113/88
86/21
85/88
GC1F57
JapanCOPD
Diffuse panbronchiolitis
63/82
82/82
GC1F58
ChinaCOPD69/52GC1F59
  • The table summarises studies of functional GC variants in COPD phenotypes. Since some of the studies have considered related, albeit different, COPD phenotypes, or have used different severity criteria, meta-analysis has not been performed. There have been three studies in Caucasians reporting that GC2 homozygotes were protected from COPD, but also three negative studies. In Asian subjects there have been four studies reporting GC1F (particularly homozygotes) to be susceptible to COPD, and one report of GC2 acting as a protective variant. It should be noted that the Tatar population in whom this study was performed, whilst ethnically Asian (coming from Mongolia), are relatively heterogeneous in modern Russia, where the study was performed. Ancestral markers to determine racial admixture were not checked, so this population is likely to contain both Asian and Caucasian elements.

  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s.