Table 2

Characteristics of female and male neonates in each study population according to asthma treatment and asthma severity

ControlAsthma severityAsthma treatment
MildModerate–severep ValueNo treatmentInhaled corticosteroidsp Value
Females
BW (g)3391.43 (2916.8 to 3592.3)3468.3 (3233.9 to 3555.2)3309.0 (3135.4 to 3517.8)0.343483.4 (3321.0)3262.6 (3079.5 to 3445.8)0.90
BW centile47.6 (33.0 to 58.2)54.5 (40.7 to 62.3)46.4 (37.2 to 55.6)0.2550.2 (44.7 to 64.1)46.3 (34.7 to 54.10.85
Length (cm)51.4 (49.0 to 54.2)50.9 (49.8 to 52.7)50.7 (49.4 to 51.7)0.7651.4 (50.2 to 52.7)50.3 (49.1 to 51.5)0.25
Length centile70.2 (51.1 to 100.0)65.2 (54.9 to 84.6)63.3 (50.5 to 72.0)0.7671.0 (59.1 to 82.8)59.6 (48.4 to 70.8)0.18
Head circumference (cm)34.6 (33.3 to 36.9)34.2 (33.2 to 35.3)34.5 (34.0 to 34.9)0.7934.3 (33.7 to 35.2)34.3 (34.0 to 34.9)0.74
Abdominal circumference (mm)271.6 (238.4 to 304.8)245.08 (229.0 to 261.2)264.2 (256.0 to 272.4)0.37247.1 (230.6 to 263.6)264.0 (256.5 to 271.5)0.37
Cord blood cortisol (mmol/l)202.72 (162.7 to 238.4)209.0 (171.4 to 246.5)254.12 (217.2 to 303.2)*0.030269.61 (194.7 to 294.7)240.71 (195.6 to 270.9)0.31
Apgar 59.3 (8.9 to 9.6)9.1 (8.8 to 9.4)9.3 (9.1–9.4)0.609.2 (8.9 to 9.4)9.3 (8.9 to 9.4)0.82
SGA n (%)2 (9.5)1 (3.2)9 (22.5)*0.0493 (9.7)7 (17.5)0.54
Males
BW (g)3642.0 (3374.9 to 3803.1)3782.7 (3555.4 to 4010.1)3501.2 (3323.1 to 3706.9)0.063816.7 (3633.6 to 4007.9)3565.8 (3217.3 to 3637.5)0.19
BW centile61.9 (50.1 to 72.4)64.2 (50.0 to 75.6)55.3 (45.4 to 65.2)0.3161.8 (53.2–75.2)56.4 (41.6 to 63.5)0.72
Length (cm)52.3 (50.7 to 53.7)53.2 (52.9 to 54.9)51.3 (50.0 to 52.5)*0.0381353.5 (52.0 to 55.0)51.9 (50.7 to 53.1)0.49
Length centile83.1 (70.3 to 93.7)94.5 (90.8 to 98.2)68.5 (55.9 to 82.4)*0.01592.0 (85.4 to 98.5)75.2 (62.6 to 86.3)0.36
Head circumference (cm)34.1 (33.3 to 35.2)35.3 (34.6 to 36.4)34.9 (34.1 to 35.7)0.8635.2 (33.9 to 36.1)35.3 (34.5 to 35.9)0.90
Abdominal circumference (mm)261.6 (256.1 to 267.1)264.1 (255.7 to 282.5)272.6 (263.6 to 281.6)0.16264.1 (256.3 to 272.0)271.1 (262.9 to 279.2)0.21
Cord blood cortisol (mmol/l)205.45 (170.4 to 241.2)233.4 (168 to 298.1)225.05 (164 to 287.0)0.45285.74 (154.7 to 302.3)251.86 (174.5 to 285.9)0.42
Apgar 59.5 (9.2 to 9.9)9.1 (8.9 to 9.4)9.1 (8.8 to 9.5)0.179.2 (9 to 9.5)9.1 (8.8 to 9.4)0.11
SGA n (%)2 (6.6)1 (3.7)2 (7.7)0.821 (4.5)2 (6.5)0.94
  • Reported p values represent significance level of univariate analysis of variance of asthma severity or asthma treatment group compared with the control group. Data represent mean (95% CI).

  • * Significant compared with both the control and mild asthma groups (p<0.05).

  • Significant main effect of asthma severity.

  • BW, birth weight; SGA, small for gestational age.