Table 3

Association between NOS2A promoter “yin–yang” haplotypes and new-onset asthma or FEV1 growth (in ml))

NOS2A regionHaplotypeNew-onset asthma8-year growth in FEV1
HR (95% CI)*p-Value‡Estimate (95% CI)†p Value‡
h0111101NoneRef.0.003Ref.0.07
At least one1.44 (1.13 to 1.82)−29.46 (−61.27 to 2.36)
h0111101NoneRef.0.01Ref.0.15
One copy1.49 (1.03 to 2.14)−40.69 (−85.04 to 3.66)
two copies2.08 (1.25 to 3.45)−46.82 (−118.29 to 24.65)
NoneRef.0.06Ref.0.01
h1000010At least one0.77 (0.59 to 1.01)43.84 (11.39 to 76.28)
h1000010NoneRef.0.09Ref.0.02
One copy0.86 (0.61 to 1.21)28.65 (−15.62 to 72.93)
Two copies0.46 (0.21 to1.00)107.74 (31.54 to 183.93)
  • * HR and 95% CI are based on fitting the Cox proportional hazard model (for details see the Methods section).

  • Estimate and 95% CI are based on the hierarchical mixed-effects model (for details see the Methods section).

  • p Value is based on a likelihood ratio test comparing models with and without genetic data.

  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s.