Table 5

Anxiety and longitudinal risk of an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Outcome measureHR for anxious vs non-anxious (95% CI)
UnadjustedMultivariable adjusted
No anxiety1.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
Anxiety1.45 (1.07 to 1.96)1.39 (1.007 to 1.90)
  • COPD exacerbation was defined as hospital-based care (either emergency department visit or hospitalisation) for COPD during prospective follow-up. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used.

  • Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, race, educational attainment, household income and smoking history.