Table 4

Impact of anxiety on patient-centred outcomes in COPD

Outcome measureChange in each outcome for anxious vs non-anxious*
UnadjustedMultivariable adjusted
Physical health status (points)−6.24 (−8.03 to −4.44)−4.66 (−6.44 to −2.89)
Disease-specific HRQL (points)4.23 (3.56 to 4.95)3.31 (2.62 to 4.00)
Distance walked in 6 min (feet)−94.6 (−157.7 to −31.5)−66.3 (−127.3 to −5.36)
Risk of self-reported physical functional limitations†OR 2.93 (2.12 to 4.05)OR 2.41 (1.71 to 3.41)
  • Physical health status was measured using the SF-12 Physical Component Summary Score (higher scores reflect better status).

  • Disease-specific HRQL was measured with the Airways Questionnaire 20-R (higher scores reflect poorer status).

  • Distance walked in 6 min (feet) was measured using the 6-min walk test.

  • Self-reported functional limitations were assessed using a battery of basic physical activities (see Methods section).

  • All multivariable analyses controlled for age, sex, race, educational attainment, household income and smoking history.

  • * Physical health status, disease-specific HRQL and distance walked in 6 min were analysed using linear regression analysis; results are expressed as mean change in each outcome measure in the group with anxiety vs referent group.

  • Self-reported functional limitations were analysed with logistic regression analysis; results are expressed as OR for the anxious group vs non-anxious group.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HRQL, health-related quality of life.