Table 3

Inflammatory profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)

VAP (n=17)Non-VAP (n=55)Matched volunteers (n=21)p Value (Dunn posthoc test between VAP and non-VAP)
Neutrophils (108/l)***2.8 (0.6–21)3.2 (0.3–12)0 (0–0.03)NS
Macrophages (108/l)*2.3 (0.4–3.9)1.6 (0.2–3.9)2.9 (1.4–3.9)NS
IL-1β (pg/ml)***103 (27–755)3 (0–48)0 (0–1.6)<0.001
IL-8 (pg/ml)***6773 (2633–11762)230 (68–1072)69 (26–374)<0.001
TNFα (pg/ml)1 (0–18)0 (0–4)0 (0–0)NS
IL-6 (pg/ml)***266 (105–503)99 (10–465)0 (0–6)NS
G-CSF (pg/ml)**107 (38–383)17 (5–89)6 (0–25)<0.05
IL-10 (pg/ml)*0 (0–9)1 (0–16)0 (0–0)NS
sTREM-1 (pg/ml)13 (0–530)0 (0–7)0 (0–93)NS
MIP-1α (pg/ml)***51 (14–269)3 (0–27)2 (0–13)<0.01
MCP-1 (pg/ml)**293 (94–554)173 (49–1097)21 (0–54)NS
  • Data are expressed as median and IQR. BALF values are corrected for dilution against concentrations of urea.19 Analysis by Kruskall–Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) allows detection of any difference between the three groups (*<0.05. **<0.01, ***<0.001 shown in the left-hand column). Posthoc comparison between VAP and non-VAP groups was undertaken by Dunn posthoc test, with the p value displayed in the right-hand column.

  • G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-1; IL, interleukin; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant peptide 1; MIP-1 α; macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; NS, non-significant; sTREM-1, type 1 soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor α; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.