Table 3 Risk factors for admission to hospital with pneumonia among children aged <5 years
Total (n = 24 781)Hospital admission for pneumonia within 1 year
Yes (n = 636)No (n = 24 145)p Value*
No (%)No (%)No (%)
Sex0.146
    Male12894 (52.0)349 (2.7)12545 (97.3)
    Female11887 (48.0)287 (2.4)11600 (97.6)
Mean (SD) age (months)32.4 (16.8)31.9 (14.5)32.4 (16.8)0.421†
Number of smokers in household<0.001‡
    07318 (29.5)121 (1.7)7197 (98.4)
    112874 (52.0)392 (3.0)12482 (97.0)
    ⩾24589 (18.5)123 (2.7)4466 (97.3)
Mean (SD) number of family members.6.1 (2.7)5.9 (2.5)6.1 (2.7)0.077†
Have siblings <10 years0.207
    Yes14899 (60.1)367 (2.5)14532 (97.5)
    No9882 (39.9)269 (2.7)9613 (97.3)
Crowding0.291
    Yes14024 (56.6)373 (2.7)13651 (97.3)
    No10753 (43.4)263 (2.5)10490 (97.6)
Composition of house0.120
    Brick22021 (88.9)553 (2.5)21468 (97.5)
    Non-brick2760 (11.1)83 (3.0)2677 (97.0)
Water source<0.001
    Tap11824 (47.7)212 (1.8)11612 (98.2)
    Well11272 (45.5)363 (3.2)10909 (96.8)
    Others1685 (6.8)61 (3.6)1624 (96.4)
Wealth level<0.001‡
    Low6459 (26.1)222 (3.4)6237 (96.6)
    Middle12097 (48.8)307 (2.5)11790 (97.5)
    High6225 (25.1)107 (1.7)6118 (98.3)
Mother’s final educational level<0.001
    Not living with mother/no information1255 (5.1)19 (1.5)1236 (98.5)
    No education/primary school7984 (32.2)242 (3.0)7742 (97.0)
    Secondary school10197 (41.2)276 (2.7)9921 (97.3)
    High school and above5345 (21.6)99 (1.9)5246 (98.2)
Father’s final educational level<0.001
    Not living with father/no information4504 (18.2)88 (2.0)4416 (98.1)
    No education/primary school6409 (25.9)203 (3.2)6206 (96.8)
    Secondary school8693 (35.1)251 (2.9)8442 (97.1)
    High school and above5175 (20.9)94 (1.8)5081 (98.2)
Area<0.001
    Nha Trang (urban)13935 (56.2)257 (1.8)13678 (98.2)
    Ninh Hoa (rural)10846 (43.8)379 (3.5)10467 (96.5)
  • 2 test unless otherwise indicated. †t test. ‡χ2 test for trend.