Table 3 Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for respiratory work disability (ie, leaving job because of affected breathing in a prospective international population-based study, the European Community Respiratory Health Survey)
Occupational exposure during follow-upRandom sampleAsthma cohort
AllNon-asthmaticsHR (95% CI)
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Model 1
Any exposure
    None1.01.01.0
    Low2.0 (1.1 to 3.4)1.9 (1.0 to 3.5)1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)
    High3.4 (1.8 to 6.6)3.6 (1.8 to 7.2)3.5 (1.4 to 9.0)
Model 2†*
Biological dust
    None1.01.01.0
    Low0.7 (0.4 to 1.4)0.7 (0.4 to 1.4)0.6 (0.2 to 1.7)
    High0.9 (0.3 to 2.6)1.0 (0.3 to 2.9)3.2 (0.7 to 13.7)
Mineral dust
    None1.01.01.0
    Low2.3 (1.1 to 4.8)3.6 (1.5 to 8.7)0.9 (0.3 to 2.5)
    High2.9 (1.1 to 7.2)4.0 (1.4 to 11.5)1.0 (0.2 to 5.1)
Gases and fumes
    None1.01.01.0
    Low1.4 (0.6 to 3.0)0.9 (0.4 to 2.3)2.2 (0.8 to 5.9)
    High1.7 (0.6 to 4.5)1.1 (0.4 to 3.4)3.5 (0.8 to 15.6)
  • Two populations were examined, a random sample and a sample of subjects with physician-diagnosed asthma at baseline, the asthma cohort.

  • *For specific occupational exposures also mutual adjustments for exposures during follow-up.

  • †Adjusted for sex, age, smoking status at baseline, geographical area and exposure to passive smoking at baseline. The model for the asthma cohort also included symptom score at baseline.