Table 3 Energy and protein intake and measures of body composition, skeletal and respiratory muscle strength and respiratory function
BaselineInterventionControlDifference (95% CI)p Value
Dietary intake(n = 28)(n = 22)
    Energy (kcal/day)19961979 (54)1785 (61)194 (31 to 357)0.02
    Protein (g/day)67.872.7 (1.8)60.9 (2.0)11.8 (6.3 to 17.3)<0.001
Body composition(n = 30)(n = 25)
    Weight (kg)54.655.7 (0.9)52.6 (1.0)3.1 (0.5 to 5.7)0.02
    MAC (cm)25.926.2 (0.3)25.3 (0.4)0.9 (0.0 to 1.9)0.05
    MAMC (cm)23.022.9 (0.2)22.4 (0.2)0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2)0.13
    S4SF (mm)32.136.3 (1.8)*29.7 (1.9)6.6 (1.4 to 11.8)0.01
Muscle strength and respiratory function
    Handgrip strength (kg)23.022.2 (0.4)21.9 (0.5)0.3 (−0.9 to 1.6)0.58
    Pmax expiratory (cm H2O)72.180.8 (4.2)71.6 (4.4)9.2 (−2.9 to 21.4)0.13
    Pmax inspiratory (cm H2O)47.254.5 (2.5)54.6 (2.6)0.1 (−7.4 to 7.2)0.98
    Sniff pressure (cm H2O)48.755.2 (2.7)55.3 (2.9)0.1 (−8.1 to 7.9)0.98
    FEV1 (l)0.830.78 (0.03)0.81 (0.04)0.03 (−0.13 to 0.07)0.56
    FVC (l)1.971.80 (0.06)1.98 (0.07)0.18 (−0.36 to 0.01)0.06
  • Values are adjusted for baseline measurements and expressed as means (SE); difference: difference in measurements between intervention and control groups; 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between intervention and control groups; p values for ANCOVA tests between intervention and control groups. Intention-to-treat analysis.

  • *n = 29 (one patient did not consent to measurement).

  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; MAC, mid arm circumference; MAMC, mid arm muscle circumference; S4SF, sum of four skinfold thickness measurements.