Table 2

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and long-term cancer mortality

Total cancer mortalityLung cancer mortalityExtrapulmonary cancer mortality
UnivariateMultivariate*UnivariateMultivariate*UnivariateMultivariate*
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
COPD2.03 (1.63 to 2.53)1.61 (1.25 to 2.06)2.76 (1.86 to 4.08)2.06 (1.32 to 3.20)1.76 (1.34 to 2.30)1.43 (1.06 to 1.94)
No COPD1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Mild COPD1.62 (1.20 to 2.18)1.30 (0.95 to 1.79)1.94 (1.13 to 3.32)1.52 (0.87 to 2.68)1.49 (1.04 to 2.15)1.22 (0.83 to 1.79)
Moderate COPD2.39 (1.83 to 3.12)1.92 (1.43 to 2.58)3.25 (2.04 to 5.17)2.51 (1.50 to 4.17)2.06 (1.48 to 2.87)1.70 (1.19 to 2.44)
Severe COPD2.42 (1.49 to 3.95)1.95 (1.14 to 3.31)4.54 (2.21 to 9.34)3.38 (1.51 to 7.55)1.64 (0.83 to 3.25)1.38 (0.67 to 2.86)
  • CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.

  • *Adjusted for age, gender, type of surgery, diabetes, smoking, hypercholestrolaemia, corticosteroids, statins and aspirin.