Table 3 Risk for the development of respiratory symptoms and for the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to asymptomatic bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR)34
Adjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Asthma phenotypes
Physician-diagnosed asthma3.0 (1.8 to 5.0)0.001
Wheeze in last 12 months without cold2.9 (1.8 to 4.5)0.001
Shortness of breath while walking1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)0.115
COPD phenotypes
All participants
Chronic phlegm1.2 (0.7 to 2.0)0.478
Chronic cough3.0 (1.7 to 5.2)0.001
Chronic bronchitis*2.6 (1.1 to 6.0)0.023
COPD†4.5 (3.3 to 6.0)0.001
  • Reproduced with permission from Thorax.

  • *Chronic bronchitis was defined as the presence of chronic cough or phlegm.

  • †COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capavity (FVC) <0.70 and no physician’s diagnosis of asthma.