Table 3 Risk factors for renal impairment
Risk factorNumber of casesNumber of controls
CF-related diabetes*52
History of hyponatraemia with metabolic alkalosis11
Congenital or acquired renal impairment10
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with vomiting12
Severe sepsis*10
Other cause of acute dehydration†30
Concurrent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs52
  • *One case with CF-related diabetes also had severe sepsis with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and required mechanical ventilation at the time of acute renal failure.

  • †Other causes of acute dehydration were diarrhoea and vomiting (n = 2) and a febrile illness (n = 1).

  • ‡Ciclosporin was prescribed to two of the index cases, one for severe allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (concurrent) and one for co-morbid asthma (discontinued 2 years before acute renal failure).