Table 2 Exposure to nephrotoxic antibiotics in cases and controls
CasesControlsOR (95% CI)p Value
Exposure at the time of ARF in index case (or preceding week)
    Intravenous aminoglycoside21381.8 (4.7 to 1427)*<0.001
    Intravenous cephalosporin†14311.6 (2.5 to 52.9)0.002
    Nebulised colistin11211.1 (0.3 to 3.8)0.8
    Nebulised aminoglycosides3 (2 tob, 1 gent)6 (2 tob, 4 gent)1.0 (0.2 to 4.8)1.0
Exposure at the time of ARF in index case (or preceding year)
    Intravenous gentamicin191<0.001‡
    Intravenous tobramycin§9161.0 (0.3 to 2.6)0.9
  • ARF, acute renal failure; gent, gentamicin; tob, tobramycin.

  • *Odds ratio calculated from age and sex stratified Mantel-Haenszel analysis.

  • †All patients who were prescribed an intravenous cephalosporin also received an intravenous aminoglycoside.

  • ‡Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) could not be calculated because of small numbers.

  • §Four cases received both intravenous gentamicin and tobramycin.