Table 2 Metabolic markers determined at baseline in healthy subjects and in patients with OSAS, with and without EDS
OSAS with EDS (n = 22)OSAS without EDS (n = 22)Healthy subjects (n = 23)p Value (a, b, c)
Glucose (mg/dl)115 (19) (107 to 122)103 (20) (94 to 113)99 (8) (95 to 103)0.002, 0.032, 0.039
Triglycerides (mg/dl)199 (110) (157 to 241)153 (58) (126 to 179)128 (93) (88 to 169)0.008, 0.084, 0.395
Cholesterol (mg/dl)223 (34) (210 to 237)220 (50) (197 to 243)224 (30) (221 to 237)0.960, 0.742, 0.721
HDLc (mg/dl)46 (10) (42 to 50)56 (11)(50 to 61)52 (9) (47 to 56)0.055, 0.002, 0.189
Insulin (μU/ml)15.2 (7.6) (12.3 to 18.1)8.6 (4.8) (6.4 to 10.8)7.8 (3.0) (6.5 to 9.2)0.000, 0.000, 0.664
HOMA index4.3 (2.4) (3.4 to 5.3)2.3 (1.8) (1.5 to 3.2)1.9 (0.8) (1.6 to 2.3)0.000, 0.000, 0.510
TSH (μUI/ml)1.1 (0.5) (0.9 to 1.3)1.6 (1.1) (1.1 to 2.1)1.5 (1.1) (1.1 to 2.0)0.120, 0.093, 0.872
Cortisol (mg/dl)13.4 (5.0) (11.5 to 15.4)15.5 (4.2) (13.6 to 17.4)14.3 (3.4) (12.9 to 15.8)0.448, 0.099, 0.382
GH (ng/ml)0.38 (0.13) (−0.14 to 0.90)0.15 (0.14) (0.07 to 0.21)0.17 (0.16) (0.09 to 0.23)0.389, 0.347, 0.922
IGF-1 (ng/ml)121 (94) (86 to 157)106 (27) (94 to 118)122 (36) (107 to 138)0.946, 0.410, 0.398
  • Results are presented as mean (SD) (95% confidence interval for the mean).

  • p values: a = OSAS with EDS vs controls; b = OSAS with EDS vs OSAS without EDS; c = OSAS without EDS vs controls.

  • EDS, excessive daytime sleepiness; GH, growth hormone; HDLc, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor I; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; TSH, thyrotropin.