Table 3 Treatment differences in outcome measures after 8 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin compared with placebo
VariableAtorvastatinPlaceboTreatment difference, atorvastatin minus placebo (95% CI)
Mean (SD) clinical outcomes
    Morning PEF (l/min)387.0 (106.5)393.9 (114.2)−0.5 (−10.6 to 9.6)
    Evening PEF (l/min)395.3 (101.0)403.8 (116.3)4.6 (−5.8 to 15.0)
    FEV1 pre-salbutamol (l)2.7 (0.8)2.7 (0.8)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.10)
    FEV1 post-salbutamol (l)3.1 (0.8)3.1 (0.8)−0.05 (−0.13 to 0.03)
    PC20 methacholine (mg/ml)†2.7 (0.9–10.3)3.0 (0.6–9.6)0.05 (−1.6 to −1.7)
    ACQ1.4 (0.9)1.5 (0.8)−0.03 (−0.28 to 0.21)
    AQLQ, median (IQR)5.9 (5.4–6.6)5.9 (5.4–6.4)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3)
Sputum differential cell count and proportion (%)
    Total cell count (×106)1.7 (0.9–2.8)1.6 (0.6–4.7)−0.07 (−0.14 to 0.01)
    Macrophage (×104)134.3 (71.0–201.0)171.3 (135.0–222.8)−44.9 (−80.1 to −9.7)*
    Macrophage (%)37.0 (20.5–52.5)45.3 (36.5–58.5)−10.9 (−20.5 to −1.2)*
    Neutrophil (×104)133.3 (81.5–234.0)100.0 (50.3–167.8)47.1 (−2.0 to 96.2)
    Neutrophil (%)34.8 (22.0–65.0)25.0 (15.0–41.9)13.1 (1.8 to 24.4)*
    Eosinophil (×104)3.8 (2.0–10.5)5.0 (1.0–10.5)−12.1 (−32.9 to 8.6)
    Eosinophil (%)1.0 (0.5–3.0)1.5 (0.4–3.0)−2.7 (−7.1 to 1.7)
    Lymphocyte (×104)2.0 (1.0–4.5)1.9 (1.0–5.0)0.4 (−0.9 to 1.7)
    Lymphocyte (%)0.6 (0.4–1.0)0.5 (0.3–1.4)0.15 (−0.18 to 0.49)
    Bronchial epithelial cell (×104)38.8 (17.0–59.0)33.5 (18.8–69.3)−3.5 (−23.3 to 16.3)
    Bronchial epithelial cell (%)10.3 (4.0–24.0)11.9 (5.0–17.8)0.28 (−5.32 to 5.88)
Sputum mediators
    LTB450.4 (27.6–79.8)68.2 (28.6–130.2)−88.1 (−156.4 to −19.9)*
    IFNγ23.9 (3.8–68.0)21.5 (3.1–155.5)−38.4 (−175.4 to 98.6)
    MPO (ng/ml)87.5 (51.0–193.0)112.3 (56.5–206.0)−32.6 (−112.8 to 47.7)
    TNFα12.5 (4.7–45.3)16.2 (4.4–123.0)−30.3 (−111.6 to 51.0)
    IL81.5 (0.5–3.6)1.5 (0.6–5.1)−1.6 (−5.7 to 2.5)
Exhaled NO (ppb)16.2 (9.0–38.1)17.3 (9.0–42.7)−1.6 (−7.1 to 3.9)
Serum biomarkers
    hs-CRP (mg/l)0.64 (0.45–1.46)1.06 (0.58–2.48)−0.65 (−1.38 to 0.09)
    sICAM (ng/ml)201 (173–222)204 (164–239)−6.5 (−21.4 to 8.4)
    TNFα1.03 (0.60–1.90)1.17 (0.77–1.87)−0.5 (2.5 to 1.4)
    IL51.87 (1.87–21.63)1.87 (1.87–27.96)−3.4 (−11.3 to 4.5)
    IL61.28 (0.74–3.12)1.19 (0.69–3.56)−0.02 (−1.89 to 1.85)
    IL80.71 (0.56–12.17)8.06 (0.56–17.54)−0.5 (−1.5 to 0.5)
Serum biochemical markers
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.6)−0.24 (−0.54 to 0.05)
    Cholesterol (mmol/l)3.3 (2.9–3.9)5.1 (4.5–5.7)−1.7 (−1.9 to −1.5)***
    HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)1.2 (1.1–1.5)1.4 (1.1–1.7)−0.14 (−0.26 to −0.02)*
    Bilirubin (μmol/l)10.0 (8.0–13.0)8.0 (6.0–10.0)1.8 (0.7 to 2.9)**
    AST (IU/l)23.0 (18.0–27.0)20.0 (16.0–24.0)2.9 (0.8 to 4.9)**
    ALT (IU/l)26 (18–35)20 (15–33)5.6 (2.7 to 8.5)***
  • Mediator levels in pg/ml unless otherwise indicated.

  • Data represented as median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Geometric mean (range).

  • ACQ, Asthma Control Questionnaire; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AQoL, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CRP, C-reactive protein; diff, differential; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; HDL, high density lipoprotein; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; LT, leukotriene; MPO, myeloperoxidase; NO, nitric oxide; ppb, parts per billion; PC20, concentration of methacholine that reduces the FEV1 by 20%; PEF, peak expiratory flow rate; sICAM, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor α.