Table 4

 Associations between maternal apple consumption and childhood wheeze and asthma at age 5 years

Childhood outcome, n (%)NMaternal apple consumptionp trend
T1 (0–1/week)n = 398T2 (1–4/week)n = 427T3 (>4/week)n = 384
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
*Adjusted for maternal age of leaving full time education, paternal social class, maternal age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, smoking in the home during childhood, energy intake, maternal asthma, maternal atopy, birth weight, presence of older siblings, sex of child and breastfeeding.
Wheeze in last 12 months,n = 162 (12.9%)
    Univariate100311.09 (0.69 to 1.67)0.61 (0.37 to 1.01)0.066
    Multivariate*100311.08 (0.68 to 1.71)0.67 (0.40 to 1.13)0.156
Wheeze without cold in last 12 months, n = 84 (6.7%)
    Univariate100311.32 (0.72 to 2.43)0.64 (0.31 to 1.35)0.286
    Multivariate*100311.27 (0.67 to 2.43)0.70 (0.32 to 1.51)0.411
Ever wheezed, n = 253 (20.2%)
    Univariate99910.86 (0.60 to 1.23)0.59 (0.40 to 0.88)0.009
    Multivariate*99910.85 (0.58 to 1.24)0.63 (0.42 to 0.95)0.029
Asthma and wheeze in last 12 months, n = 107 (8.5%)
    Univariate99811.02 (0.60 to 1.73)0.55 (0.29 to 1.03)0.072
    Multivariate*99811.03 (0.59 to 1.80)0.60 (0.31 to 1.16)0.148
Doctor confirmed asthma,n = 145 (11.6%)
    Univariate99810.87 (0.56 to 1.36)0.46 (0.27 to 0.78)0.005
    Multivariate*99810.83 (0.52 to 1.32)0.47 (0.27 to 0.82)0.008
Ever had asthma,n = 156 (12.5%)
    Univariate99810.90 (0.58 to 1.38)0.52 (0.31 to 0.86)0.013
    Multivariate*99810.86 (0.54 to 1.36)0.54 (0.32 to 0.92)0.026