Table 5 Strength and direction of associations between derived phenotypes and clinical outcomes
Transient early×
Prolonged early√√×↓↓
Intermediate onset√√√√√√↓↓↓↓↑↑
Late onset√√√√√↑↑
  • The strength of association of each wheezing phenotype with each outcome is represented by the number of symbols (√, ↓ or ↑) with a cross (×) representing absence of association with that outcome.

  • AHR, airway hyper-responsiveness; FEF25–75, mid forced expiratory flow; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s.