Table 2

 Muscle activity and ventilation during α–θ transition

Wakefulness (α)Sleep (θ)p ValueMean difference (95% CI)
DIAEMG, diaphragm electromyogram; GGEMG, genioglossus electromyogram; TPEMG, tensor palatini electromyogram; Vt, tidal volume; Ve, minute ventilation; Sao2, oxygen saturation; Petco2, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension.
†Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Average muscle activity (% max)
    DIAEMG6.5 (1.5)6.4 (1.6)0.3240.0 (0.0 to 0.1)
    GGEMG1.6 (0.5)1.3 (0.4)0.0160.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
    TPEMG4.3 (2.3)3.7 (2.1)0.004†
Vt (l)0.42 (0.0)0.41 (0.0)0.0790.01 (0.00 to 0.03)
Ve (l/min)7.8 (0.7)7.7 (0.8)0.2530.2 (−0.1 to 0.4)
Sao2 (%)97.2 (0.3)97.2 (0.3)0.7550.0 (0.0 to 0.3)
Petco2 (mm Hg)40.3 (0.8)40.6 (1.0)0.2870.3 (−0.3 to 0.9)