Table 1

 Demographics of never, former and current smokers

CharacteristicNever smokersFormer smokersCurrent smokersAll subjects
(n = 925)(n = 517)(n = 559)(n = 2001)
*p<0.05 compared with non-smokers by t test or χ2 test, as appropriate.
p<0.05 compared with former smokers by t test or χ2 test, as appropriate.
p<0.05 compared with non-smokers, after adjusting for age in analysis of covariance or logistic regression models, as appropriate.
Age (years), mean (SD)55.7 (12.9)58.3 (12.9)*52.1 (10.0)*55.4 (12.4)
Gender (% male)27.945.7*66.7*†‡43.3
Race (% white)79.076.566.6*†‡74.1
Marital status (% married)62.060.961.561.4
Education (% beyond high school)53.654.449.052.5
Health insurance provided by employer (%)46.740.2*57.1*†‡47.9
Employed (%)66.352.2*70.5*63.8
The subject is the family’s primary income source (%)55.663.0*76.1*†‡62.6
Income (% <$40 000 per year)40.948.2*39.242.3
Very good or excellent health (%)68.661.9*55.7*†‡63.3
Ever had cancer (%)4.68.4*8.8*6.7
Pack-years
    Mean (SD)15.6 (17.7)
    Median (interquartile range)10.0 (3.4 to 22.5)
Usual source of healthcare (%)95.896.584.6*†‡92.8
Doctor’s office as usual source of healthcare (%)85.881.3*77.2*82.4
Distance from usual source of healthcare (miles), mean (SD)9.7 (29.6)11.1 (28.9)14.6 (30.3)*11.3 (29.7)
Time to usual source of healthcare (min),mean (SD)19.7 (46.4)20.8 (50.6)24.9 (42.3)*21.3 (46.6)
Able to work (%)90.583.1*83.3*86.6
Type of work limited by health impairment (%)12.521.2*21.4*17.2