Table 3

 Risk of lung function impairment for death using Cox proportional hazard models

GOLD category*Unadjusted model HR (95% CI)Adjusted model† HR (95% CI)
GOLD, Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease; LLN, lower limit of normal.
From the Cardiovascular Health Study and follow-up.
*The categories in bold comprise the “potentially overdiagnosed” group of individuals.
†Adjusted for age, sex, race and smoking status.
GOLD 3 or 4 (<LLN)3.0 (2.5 to 3.7)3.0 (2.4 to 3.7)
GOLD 3 or 4 (⩾LLN) 1.8 (0.4 to 8.8) 3.0 (0.6 to 14.3)
GOLD 2 (<LLN)1.9 (1.6 to 2.3)1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)
GOLD 2 (⩾LLN) 1.9 (1.5 to 2.4) 2.2 (1.7 to 2.7)
GOLD 1 (<LLN)2.1 (1.7 to 2.6)1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)
GOLD 1 (⩾LLN) 1.7 (1.5 to 2.0) 1.1 (0.96 to 1.3)
GOLD 01.3 (1.1 to 1.6)1.2 (1.03 to 1.4)
Restricted1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)1.9 (1.6 to 2.3)
Normal1.01.0