Table 2 Effects on symptoms of five Papworth method (PM) treatments compared with usual asthma care only
BaselinePost-treatment (6 months post baseline)12 months post-baseline
Control(n = 46)PM(n = 39)Control(n = 45)PM(n = 33)p Value*Control(n = 40)PM(n = 32)p Value*
SGRQ Symptoms35.1 (12.9)42.9 (21.3)32.8 (20.1)21.8 (18.1)0.00133.5 (15.9)24.9 (17.9)0.007
SGRQ Activities20.2 (17.4)27.8 (21.3)17.0 (17.5)20.4 (18.8)0.98418.4 (18.9)19.0 (15.7)0.16
SGRQ Impacts14.7 (11.53)18.2 (14.8)10.8 (11.0)11.5 (11.5)0.81810.4 (10.7)10.0 (10.1)0.393
SGRQ Total19.7 (11.3)25.2 (16.1)16.3 (12.2)15.9 (14.0)0.18616.7 (11.6)15.2 (10.9)0.05
Nijmegen Total score17.8 (9.1)19.2 (11.0)15.0 (9.5)11.0 (9.7)<0.00114.2 (9.2)11.9 (8.6)0.015
HADS Anxiety6.2 (3.8)6.3 (3.5)6.2 (3.7)4.7 (3.1)0.0025.9 (4.1)4.4 (2.7)0.006
HADS Depression2.2 (1.8)3.3 (2.5)2.4 (2.4)2.2 (2.3)0.0752.6 (2.7)2.1 (2.2)0.03
ETco2 (mm Hg)39.0 (3.7)38.3 (5.5)39.4 (4.4)39.9 (4.6)0.37539.2 (3.4)39.3 (6.0)0.772
Relaxed breathing rate over 10 min15.1 (2.5)15.0 (3.3)15.3 (2.4)10 (3.0)<0.00115.3 (2.7)9.6 (3.7)<0.001
  • Values presented as mean (SD).

  • SGRQ, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores: range 0–100 (best−worst);

  • Nijmegen scores: higher scores indicate increased severity in symptoms from hypocapnia: range 0–64 (best−worst); HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: range 0–21 (best−worst); ETco2, end tidal carbon dioxide.

  • *From analysis of covariance comparing PM and control groups controlling for baseline scores.