Table 2

 Clinical manifestations suggestive of CF

Highly suggestiveSuggestive but less specific
Gastrointestinal manifestations Gastrointestinal manifestations
Meconium ileus Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in childrenFailure to thrive Hypoproteinaemia Deficiency of liposoluble vitamins Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome Rectal prolapse Biliary cirrhosis Portal hypertension Cholelithiasis in children without haemolytic disorder Primary sclerosing cholangitis Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in adults Recurrent pancreatitis
Sinopulmonary manifestations Sinopulmonary manifestations
Persistent respiratory infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bronchiectasis in both upper lobes Persistent respiratory infection with Burkholderia cepacia Nasal polyps in childrenPersistent or recurrent respiratory infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans or Haemophilus influenzae Radiological evidence of bronchiectasis, atelectasis, hyperinflation, or persistent infiltrates on chest radiograph Haemoptysis associated with diffuse pulmonary disease other than tuberculosis or vasculitis Chronic and/or productive cough Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Nasal polyps in adults Radiological evidence of chronic pansinusitis
Other Other
Hypochloraemic alkalosis in the absence of vomiting Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferensDigital clubbing Osteopenia/osteoporosis <40 years of age Atypical diabetes