Table 5

 Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for mortality from obstructive lung disease and pneumonia as underlying or contributory causes of death, by respiratory symptoms and sex, adjusted for occupational exposure, smoking, and age in Norway, 1973–2002: separate models for each symptom group

SymptomsObstructive lung disease (n = 355)Pneumonia (n = 1154)
HR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CI
No respiratory symptoms1.
Cough4.12.9 to to to to 1.5
Asthma-like symptoms4.63.2 to to to to 1.5
Moderate dyspnoea5.13.3 to to to to 1.5
Severe dyspnoea12.78.0 to to to to 2.4