Table 4

 Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for mortality from obstructive lung disease and pneumonia as underlying causes of death by respiratory symptoms and sex, adjusted for smoking habit, occupational exposure, and age in Norway, 1973–2002. Persons who reported physician diagnosed asthma, bronchitis or emphysema are excluded. Separate models for each symptom group

SymptomsObstructive lung disease (n = 112)Pneumonia (n = 243)
HR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CI
No respiratory symptoms1.
Cough symptoms2.51.4 to to to to 1.8
Asthma-like symptoms2.91.6 to to to to 2.0
Moderate dyspnoea2.31.0 to to to to 1.6
Severe dyspnoea4.21.5 to to to to 2.5