Table 2

 Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for mortality from obstructive lung disease and pneumonia as underlying cause of death by respiratory symptom groups, symptom score and sex, adjusted for occupational exposure, smoking habits, and age in Norway, 1973–2002: separate models for each symptom group

SymptomObstructive lung disease (n = 250)Pneumonia (n = 293)
HR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CIHR95% CI
No respiratory symptoms1.
Symptom group
    Cough symptoms4.02.4 to to to to 1.8
    Asthma-like symptoms4.72.9 to to to to 1.8
    Moderate dyspnoea4.52.5 to to to to 1.3
    Severe dyspnoea9.65.1 to 18.313.06.0 to to to 2.7
Symptom score
    1–32.31.4 to to to to 1.3
    4–64.12.3 to to to to 1.9
    ⩾713.67.1 to 25.921.59.4 to to to 6.0
    p trend for symptom score<0.001<0.0010.090.02