Table 2

 Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors affecting survival after surgery for lung cancer: patients diagnosed in 19932002 (n = 3211)

NUnivariateMultivariate
HR95% CIp valueHR95% CIp value
HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; VATS, video assisted thoracic surgery.
Sex<0.001<0.001
    Female11501.00ref1.00ref
    Male20611.561.42 to 1.711.411.28 to 1.56
Age<0.001<0.001
    <502921.00ref1.00ref
    50–596701.371.12 to 1.671.090.89 to 1.33
    60–6911051.721.42 to 2.071.451.20 to 1.75
    70–7910612.231.85 to 2.681.951.62 to 2.36
    80–89833.112.30 to 4.203.232.38 to 4.40
Side0.330.028
    Left14591.00ref1.00ref
    Right17521.040.96 to 1.141.111.01 to 1.22
Surgical procedure<0.001<0.001
    Upper lobectomy10581.00ref1.00ref
    Middle lobectomy820.900.66 to 1.231.240.90 to 1.70
    Lower lobectomy7411.171.03 to 1.321.161.02 to 1.32
    Bilobectomy2981.331.13 to 1.571.251.05 to 1.49
    Pneumonectomy8511.981.78 to 2.211.571.39 to 1.78
    Sublobar resections1811.200.98 to 1.471.411.15 to 1.74
Surgical technique0.0770.91
    Open thoracotomy31111.00ref1.00ref
    VATS1000.780.59 to 1.030.980.74 to 1.31
Resection margins<0.001<0.001
    Free29991.00ref1.00ref
    Involved1991.821.55 to 2.131.491.26 to 1.76
    Possibly involved or unknown131.590.88 to 2.881.440.79 to 2.64
Histopathology type<0.001<0.001
    Squamous cell11671.00ref1.00ref
    Adenocarcinoma12251.050.95 to 1.161.441.30 to 1.61
    Bronchioloalveolar1280.640.50 to 0.820.950.73 to 1.24
    Carcinoid1390.090.06 to 0.160.190.11 to 0.32
    Small cell511.150.83 to 1.591.330.96 to 1.86
    Large cell2231.100.92 to 1.321.331.11 to 1.59
    Other2781.090.93 to 1.281.291.09 to 1.51
pStage<0.001<0.001
    I20871.00ref1.00ref
    II7491.961.77 to 2.171.731.55 to 1.92
    III3112.832.47 to 3.242.322.01 to 2.68
    IV643.202.46 to 4.162.471.88 to 3.24
Hospital volume0.780.48
    <2012271.00ref1.00ref
    ⩾2019840.990.90 to 1.080.970.88 to 1.06
Tumour size (cm)<0.001<0.001
    ⩽312951.00ref1.00ref
    >3–510351.491.34 to 1.661.211.08 to 1.35
    >57732.131.91 to 2.391.621.44 to 1.83
    Unknown1081.411.10 to 1.801.280.99 to 1.64