Table 4

 Association of leafy vegetables, tomatoes and carrots with asthma prevalence in adulthood according to smoking status

Food groups or foods†Quartile of intake (g/day)p test for trend
Q1Q2Q3Q4
*Adjusted for age, total caloric intake, BMI, physical activity, menopausal status, and vitamin supplementation use.
†Food groups: leafy vegetables (chicory, lettuce and spinach).
Leafy vegetables⩽39.3>39.3–62.9>62.9–90.0>90.0
Non-smokers
    Cases (n)342324312313
    Controls (n)10369106931078110249
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.92 (0.79 to 1.07)0.88 (0.75 to 1.03)0.93 (0.79 to 1.08)0.2
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.90 (0.77 to 1.05)0.85 (0.72 to 0.99)0.86 (0.74 to 1.01)0.04
Ex-smokers
    Cases (n)148155137144
    Controls (n)3409363637153948
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.78 to 1.24)0.85 (0.67 to 1.07)0.83 (0.66 to 1.05)0.06
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.97 (0.77 to 1.22)0.82 (0.65 to 1.05)0.78 (0.61 to 0.99)0.01
Current smokers
    Cases (n)73525747
    Controls (n)2246204219772018
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.78 (0.54 to 1.12)0.89 (0.62 to 1.26)0.72 (0.49 to 1.04)0.13
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.78 (0.54 to 1.11)0.88 (0.62 to 1.25)0.69 (0.47 to 1.00)0.10
Tomatoes⩽6.4>6.4–17.9>17.9–28.2>28.2
Non-smokers
    Cases (n)327322336306
    Controls (n)10253107521063110456
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.94 (0.80 to 1.10)0.99 (0.85 to 1.16)0.92 (0.78 to 1.07)0.4
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.96 (0.82 to 1.12)0.98 (0.85 to 1.16)0.88 (0.75 to 1.03)0.17
Ex-smokers
    Cases (n)154132154144
    Controls (n)3540355837983812
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.86 (0.68 to 1.09)0.94 (0.75 to 1.18)0.88 (0.69 to 1.10)0.4
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.88 (0.69 to 1.11)0.95 (0.75 to 1.19)0.85 (0.67 to 1.07)0.2
Current smokers
    Cases (n)79524454
    Controls (n)2232205419822015
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.72 (0.50 to 1.02)0.63 (0.43 to 0.91)0.75 (0.53 to 1.07)0.07
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.74 (0.52 to 1.06)0.63 (0.43 to 0.92)0.75 (0.52 to 1.07)0.06
Carrots⩽3.8>3.8–14.9>14.9–24.9>24.9
Non-smokers
    Cases (n)337334315305
    Controls (n)10002104671081210811
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.95 (0.81 to 1.10)0.87 (0.74 to 1.01)0.84 (0.72 to 0.98)0.01
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.97 (0.83 to 1.13)0.87 (0.74 to 1.02)0.81 (0.69 to 0.95)0.004
Ex-smokers
    Cases (n)153148145138
    Controls (n)3606362737173758
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.97 (0.77 to 1.22)0.92 (0.73 to 1.16)0.86 (0.68 to 1.09)0.18
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.99 (0.79 to 1.25)0.93 (0.73 to 1.17)0.83 (0.66 to 1.06)0.10
Current smokers
    Cases (n)76634545
    Controls (n)2360228518631775
        Age adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.85 (0.61 to 1.20)0.75 (0.52 to 1.09)0.78 (0.54 to 1.14)0.13
        Multivariate OR (95% CI)*1.000.88 (0.63 to 1.24)0.76 (0.52 to 1.11)0.78 (0.53 to 1.14)0.12