Table 2

 Characteristics of patients with pulmonary TB by gender, Orizaba, Veracruz, 1995–2003

CharacteristicsTotalMen(n = 367)§Women(n = 256)§p value
SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range; TB, tuberculosis; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.
*ANOVA (analysis of variance).
†Mann-Whitney test.
‡Clustering within 1 year of diagnosis.
§Because there were missing values for the characteristics of some of the patients, several of the numbers do not add up to the group total.
Mean (SD) age (years)44.3 (17.8)45.19 (17.3)43.12 (18.5)0.15*
Any formal education, n (%)505/620 (81.45)313/365 (85.75)192/255 (75.29)0.001
Potable water available within the household, n (%)246/606 (40.59)157/357 (43.98)89/249 (35.74)0.04
Median (IQR) distance to nearest health centre (metres)691.81 (436.94–1012.05)686.93 (437.35–980.23)705.47 (430.94–1211.67)0.24†
Used alcohol, n (%)285 (45.97)255/365 (69.86)30/255 (11.76)<0.001
Used tobacco, n (%)169/620 (27.26)150/365 (41.10)19/255 (7.45)<0.001
Used illegal drug, n (%)43/620 (6.94)42/365 (11.51)1/255 (0.39)<0.001
Homelessness or residence in shelters, n (%)23/619 (3.72)22/364 (6.04)1/255 (0.39)<0.001
Previous imprisonment, n (%)168/619 (27.14)161/365 (44.11)7/254 (2.76)<0.001
HIV infection, n (%)15/601 (2.50)10/352 (2.84)5/249 (2.01)0.52
Weight loss, n (%)522/611 (85.43)319/361 (88.37)203/250 (81.20)0.01
Haemoptysis, n (%)205/619 (33.12)140/364 (38.46)65/255 (25.49)0.001
Cavities on chest radiograph, n (%)174/521 (33.40)98/298 (32.89)76/223 (34.08)0.77
Infiltrates on chest radiograph, n (%)358/531 (67.42)230/305 (75.41)128/226 (56.64)<0.001
Clustered genotype pattern‡155/623 (24.88)87/367 (23.71)68/256 (26.56)0.42
Median (IQR) interval between initiation of symptoms and diagnosis (months)2.87 (1.70–5.47)2.90 (1.70–5.57)2.78 (1.63–5.0)0.46†
Median (IQR) interval between initiation of symptoms and treatment (months)3.37 (2.07–5.97)3.50 (2.10–6.20)3.25 (2.02–5.40)0.18†
Median (IQR) interval between diagnosis and initiation of treatment (months)0.20 (0.07–0.43)0.20 (0.07–0.047)0.02 (0.07–0.37)0.22†
M tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, n (%)36/618 (5.83)19/366 (5.19)17/252 (6.75)0.42
Initiation of treatment <10 days after diagnosis, n (%)408/576 (70.83)242/346 (69.94)166/230 (72.17)0.56
Directly supervised treatment, n (%)551/562 (98.04)333/339 (98.23)218/223 (97.76)0.69
Treatment outcome, n (%)
    Cure471/568 (82.92)273/343 (79.59)198/225 (88.0)0.009
    Default52/568 (9.15)41/343 (11.95)11/225 (4.89)0.002
    Retreatment during follow up47/606 (7.10)36/355 (9.30)10/251 (3.98)0.01
Mean (SD) follow up (months)40.81 (32.43)48.33 (33.43)49.48 (30.98)0.66*
Death from TB, n (%)52/623 (8.35)37/367 (10.08)15/256 (5.86)0.06