Table 3

 What is known of non-pharmacological treatment

Pao2, Paco2, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tension.
Controlled oxygen support
• Improves Pao2 with small Paco2 increases
• Abates dyspnoea
• Use high flow (Venturi) devices
• Repeat arterial blood gas measurements in moderate to severe exacerbations
• Use pulse oximetry (for Sao2 assessment) for mild exacerbations
Mechanical ventilation
Non-invasive ventilation:
• Reduces respiratory rate and improves Pao2, Paco2, and pH
• Decreases mortality, need for intubation, treatment failure, and length of hospital stay
• Cost effective intervention
• Deliver in a controlled setting
Invasive ventilation:
• Improves life threatening acute respiratory failure
• Good survival
• Suitability of intubation and ventilation
Pulmonary rehabilitation
• No indication