Table 3

 Mean (95% CI) adjusted* annual FEV1 decline (ml/year) in tertiles of antioxidants at baseline (ECRHS I, 1992)

Tertiles of antioxidants in 1992 (ECRHS I)†Mean difference between tertiles
IIIIIIp valueI and III and III
*Multiple linear regression including sex, centre, and baseline values of FEV1, age, smoking status, BMI, and LDL cholesterol levels.
†Tertile limits for β-carotene: 0.00–0.248, 0.248–0.437 and 0.437–3.298 μmol/l; tertile limits for α-carotene: 0.00–0.048, 0.048–0.101 and 0.101–1.212 μmol/l; tertile limits for vitamin A: 0.28–1.64, 1.64–2.08 and 2.08–3.96 μmol/l; and tertile limits for vitamin E: 1.75–19.39, 19.39–25.36 and 25.36–76.83 μmol/l.
β-carotene−36.5 (−41.4 to −31.5)−26.6 (−31.4 to −21.9)−28.6 (−33.7 to −23.6)0.029.8 (2.3 to 17.3)7.8 (−0.3 to 15.9)
α-carotene−30.4 (−35.5 to −25.4)−30.7 (−35.6 to −25.9)−30.9 (−36.1 to −25.7)0.99−0.3 (−8.0 to 7.4)−0.5 (−9.0 to 8.0)
Vitamin A−30.5 (−35.6 to −25.4)−29.5 (−34.3 to −24.6)−32.1 (−37.2 to −27.0)0.741.0 (−6.6 to 8.7)−1.6 (−10.0 to 6.7)
Vitamin E−29.0 (−34.2 to −23.9)−30.3 (−35.1 to −25.5)−32.8 (−38.1 to −27.5)0.62−1.2 (−8.8 to 6.3)−3.8 (−12.4 to 4.9)