Table 4

 Risk for the development of respiratory symptoms and for the presence of COPD at SAPALDIA 2 related to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in asymptomatic individuals

Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)*p value†
OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
*From logistic regression with adjustments for sex, age, FVC in 1991, BMI in 1991, change in weight, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke reported in 2002, smoking status in 2002, pack years in 2002, atopy at baseline, exposure to dust and fumes at work in 2002, level of education at baseline, and study area.
†For effect estimates in adjusted analyses.
‡Participants diagnosed with asthma between 1991 and 2002 were excluded from analyses for chronic cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis, and COPD.
§COPD was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.70 and no physician’s diagnosis of asthma.
¶Chronic bronchitis defined as the presence of chronic cough or phlegm.
Asthma phenotypes
Physician-diagnosed asthma3.0 (1.9 to 4.7)3.0 (1.8 to 5.0)<0.001
Wheeze in last 12 months without cold2.7 (1.8 to 3.9)2.9 (1.8 to 4.5)<0.001
Shortness of breath while walking1.8 (1.4 to 2.4)1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)0.115
COPD phenotypes
All subjects
Chronic phlegm1.0 (0.7 to 1.6)1.2 (0.7 to 2.0)0.478
Chronic cough2.7 (1.7 to 4.3)3.0 (1.7 to 5.2)<0.001
Chronic bronchitis¶3.0 (1.5 to 6.3)2.6 (1.1 to 6.0)0.023
COPD§3.7 (2.9 to 4.7)4.5 (3.3 to 6.0)<0.001