Table 1

 Risk estimates of MDR-TB for factors reported in original studies (incomplete data)

ReferenceTime/placeDesignPopulation studied*N (%)No of MDR-TB casesFactorsRisk ratio estimates† of MDR-TB (95% CI)
MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; OR, odds ratios; RR, relative risk; CI, confidence intervals; nr, not reported.
*The number of confirmed cases of TB further tested for drug sensitivity.
†Versus drug susceptible and other resistant TB if not otherwise specified.
‡The risk of MDR-TB for previous treatment has been included in meta-analysis as complete data were available.
§Versus drug susceptible TB.
¶Matched for date and region of notification.
**Versus other cases resistant to more than one drug.
††Multivariable analysis.
‡‡Defined as having a permanent place to live.
Lockman141994–1996, EstoniaMatched case-control study833 (nr)46Female sexOR 3.5 (1.1 to 14.6)§¶
Gilad151992–1997, Negev, IsraelRetrospective laboratory based survey249 (nr)21Immigrants from former Soviet UnionOR 4.10 (1.48 to 11.83)
Anon161995–1998, Ivanovo, RussiaFrequency matched case-control study514 (nr)new cases26HomelessnessOR 3.1 (1.1 to 8.8)¶
Flament-Saillour171994, FranceLaboratory based case-control study7752 (nr)51Previous treatmentOR 24.2 (6.9 to 85.1)**††
Foreign bornOR 3.8 (1.2 to 11.8)**††
Kimerling181999, Tomsk City, Siberia, RussiaRetrospective laboratory based survey244 (nr)new cases32Age ⩽40 yearsOR 1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)
Male sexOR 0.9 (0.4 to 1.9)
UnemploymentOR 0.8 (0.3 to 1.8)
Good residence‡‡OR 2.1 (1.0 to 4.7)
Prison history (10 years)OR 1.4 (0.6 to 3.4)
Drug addictionOR 1.9 (0.5 to 7.2)
Psychological disordersOR 2.6 (0.8 to 8.8)
Migliori291998–1999,ItalyRetrospective laboratory based survey810 (30)51Previous treatment among treated cases age ⩽45 v>45 yearsRR 1.88 (1.31 to 2.70)
Fietta301990–2000, Pavia, ItalyRetrospective population based survey279 (nr)39HIV+OR 14.2 (3.5 to 57.4)
ImmigrationOR 3.9 (1.2 to 12.6)