Table 2

 Characteristics of trials in adults included in the review

Study (year)DesignLanguage and countryJadad scoreNo (and age)
>of patients
Mean baseline severityDose of
>β agonist
Dose of anticholinergicCCS use
MC, multicentre; TC, two centre; R, randomised; SB, single blind; DB, double blind; E, English; Sp, Spanish; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; PEF, peak expiratory flow; S, salbutamol; F, fenoterol; IB, ipratropium bromide; OB, oxitropium bromide; Gly, glycopyrrolate; CCS, systemic corticosteroids.
Bryant (1985)28R, DBE, Australia228 (⩾18 y)FEV1 <75%F, 1 mg Neb ×1IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1No
Rebuck et al (1987)29MC, R, DBE, Canada4148 (⩾18 y)FEV1 <70%F, 1.25 mg Neb ×1IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1Yes
Higgins et al (1988)30R, DBE, England240 (⩾18 y)PEF <30%S, 5 mg q120 min Neb ×2IB, 0.5 mg q120 min Neb ×2Yes
O’Driscoll et al (1989)31R, DBE, England256 (⩾18 y)PEF <35%S, 10 mg Neb ×1IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1Yes
Summers and Tarala (1990)32R, DBE, Australia376 (16–70 y)PEF <60%S, 5 mg Neb ×1IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1Yes
Cydulka and Emerman (1994)33R, DBE, USA3125 (⩾18 y)FEV1 <75%S, 2.5 mg q60 min Neb ×3Gly, 2 mg Neb ×1Yes
Rodrigo and Rodrigo (1995)34R, DBSp, Uruguay322 (18–50 y)FEV1 <50%S, 0.4 mg q10 min MDI ×3 hIB, 0.08 mg q10 min MDI ×3 hNo
Karpel et al (1996)35MC, R, DBE, USA5384 (18–55 y)FEV1 <60%S, 2.5 mg q45 min Neb ×2IB, 0.5 mg q45 min Neb ×2No
FitzGerald et al
>(1997)36
MC, R, DBE, Canada3342 (18–50 y)FEV1 <70%S, 3 mg Neb ×1IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1Yes
Garret et al (1997)37TC, R, DBE, New Zealand4338 (18–55 y)FEV1 <70%S, 2.5 mg q45 min Neb ×2IB, 0.5 mg q45 min Neb ×2Yes
Lin et al (1998)38R, DBE, USA455 (⩾18 y)PEF <200 l/minS, 2.5 mg q20 min Neb ×3IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1No
Kamei et al (1999)39MC, RE, Japan364 (⩾18 y)FEV1 <70%F, 0.2 mg q1 min MDI ×5OB, 0.1 mg q1 min MDI ×5Yes
Weber et al (1999)40R, DBE, USA567 (⩾18 y)PEF <70%S, 10 mg q1 h Neb ×3 hIB, 1 mg q1 h Neb ×3 hNo
Nakano et al (2000)41R, SBE, Japan474 (⩾18 y)PEF <50%S, 0.4 mg q20 min MDI ×3OB, 0.4 mg q20 min MDI ×3Yes
Rodrigo and Rodrigo (2000)42R, DBE, Uruguay5180 (18–50 y)FEV1 <50%S, 0.4 mg q10 min MDI ×3 hIB, 0.08 mg q10 min MDI ×3 hNo
Aggarwal et al
>(2002)43
RE, India248 (13–50 y)PEF <50%S, 5 mg q60 min Neb ×2IB, 0.5 mg Neb ×1No