Table 1

 Baseline characteristics of included studies

AuthorYearPopulationSample sizeNo of deathsFollow up time(years)Mean (SD)age(years)Male(%)Current smokers(%)FEV1(% predicted or litres (l))End pointCovariate
SD, standard deviation; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; NR, not reported; BMI, body mass index.
*These values represent the percentage of participants who smoked ⩾15 cigarettes daily.
Hole101996Renfrew and Paisley, West Scotland15411443915NR45.8Male: 45*Female: 46*Male: 73%Female: 70%MortalityAge, cigarette smoking, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol concentration, BMI, social class
Kuller111990High risk men (92% white) for coronary heart disease in USA1286611910.546 (5.5)100643.21 l or 88%MortalityAge, height, number of cigarettes per day, thiocyanate, age at which smoking began, use of filter cigarettes, tar and nicotine content, alcoholic drinks/week, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol
Mannino122003General civilian population in USA54021131847 (14)45.24289MortalityAge, sex, race, smoking status, pack-years
Van Den Eeden131992North California,USA1713111514942 (NR)46.3Male: 51 Female: 40Male: 3.09 l Female: 2.19 lIncidenceAge, former and current smokers, smoking duration, quantity, and inhalation