Table 2

 Comparison of the two groups with regard to cough perception, duration of procedure, sedation, and oxygen saturation

Hydrocodone (n = 60)Placebo(n = 60)p value
VAS = visual analogue scale.
*Median (range).
†Mean (SD), range.
‡From insertion of bronchoscope to removal.
¶Sao2 measured on 4–6 litres oxygen.
Cough*
    Bronchoscopist (VAS)3 (0–10)6 (0–10)0.001
    Nursing team (VAS)3 (0–10)6 (0–10)0.009
    Patient discomfort (VAS)2 (0–8)3 (0–9)0.043
Duration of procedure (min)†‡21 (11), 2–4522 (10), 5–600.570
Lignocaine dose (mg)†171 (60), 60–330173 (66), 90–4500.766
Midazolam dose (mg)†4.5 (2.3), 2–104.9 (2.7), 3–150.309
Mean lowest Sao294.8 (2.7)94.9 (2.7)0.433