Table 3

Results of different outcome measures: self-management compared with usual care

OutcomeNo of studiesMeta-analysisResults of the different outcome measures
WMD=weighted mean difference; SMD=standardised mean difference.
General HRQoL317,19,23No
  • SIP: incongruent results

  • Health Status Questionnaire 2.0: no difference in general; improved well being scores

  • General Health Questionnaire: no difference

  • Self-designed questionnaire: no difference

Disease specific HRQoL28,24Yes8,24
  • Meta-analysis SGRQ indicating better HRQoL but significant heterogeneity between studies; WMD = −10 (95% CI −18.5 to −2.0)

COPD symptoms221,24No
  • Borg scale: positive direction, not significant

  • Global Assessment Scale: reduction in symptom severity; not significant

  • Symptom diaries: no difference

  • No comparison between groups could be made

Use of oral steroids315,23,24Yes15,23
  • Meta-analysis % patients who used oral steroids: increased use; RR 1.39 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.91)

  • Watson et al: increased number of days on prednisolone

Use of antibiotics223,24No
  • Increased use of the number of patients which used antibiotics

  • Increased number of days on antibiotics

Rescue medication115No
  • Reduction of short acting β agonist use

  • Meta-analysis number of patients with one or more admissions: reduction, not significant; RR 0.80 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.50)

  • Solomon + Cockcroft: no difference

ER visits121No
  • No difference

Doctor/nurse visits316,21,24Yes16,21,24
  • Meta-analysis number of visits per year: non-significant reduction and significant heterogeneity between studies; WMD = −0.36 (95% CI −0.75 to 0.03)

Days lost from work216,17No
  • No difference

Lung function416,19,23,24Yes16,19,23,24
  • Meta-analysis FEV1 % pred: no difference; SMD = −0.01 (95% CI −0.24 to 0.22)

Exercise capacity0