Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

ReferenceDesignNMean age I/C*Sex
(% male) I/C*
FEV1 (%pred) I/C*RecruitmentFollow up (months)Outcomes
RCT=randomised controlled trial; CCT=controlled clinical trial.
*I=intervention group; C=control group.
†These papers were derived from the same study.
‡The third arm of this study was disregarded because it focused on pulmonary rehabilitation.
§These papers were derived from the same study.
Gallefoss (1999a)†8RCT6257/5848/5259/56Outpatients12Health status
Gallefoss (1999b)†15RCT6257/5848/5259/56Outpatients12Compliance, courses of steroids, use of rescue medication
Gallefoss (2000)†16RCT6257/5848/5259/56Outpatients12Health status, hospital admissions, days lost from work, GP consultation, lung function
Blake (1990)17RCT9463/6480/82?Outpatients12Health status, hospital days, bed disability days, restricted activity days, physician visits
Cockcroft (1987)18RCT7569/7169/67?Outpatients10Health status, hospital admissions, deaths knowledge, symptoms
Emery (1998)‡19RCT5067/6767/6743/39Outpatients + GP patients, advertisements + word of mouth2Health status, knowledge, lung function
Gourley (1998)§20RCT9869/69100/100?Outpatients6Health status, patient satisfaction, knowledge
Solomon (1998)§21RCT12869/69100/10050/50Outpatients6Symptoms, hospital admissions, ER visits, other healthcare facilities
Howland (1986)22CCT65959/6054/51?Community patients12Health status, lung function
Littlejohns (1991)23RCT15263/6367/6345/50Outpatients12Health status, number of exacerbations, courses of steroids/antibiotics, hospital admissions, lung function, exercise capacity
Watson (1997)24RCT6968/6762/6737/36GP patients6Health status, symptoms, GP visits, courses of steroids/antibiotics, lung function