Table 1

Characteristics of cases and controls

Cases (n=1127)Controls (n=10766)
*Age was a matching factor.
†Includes amiodarone, disopyramide, flecainide, mexiletine, procanamide, propafenone, quinidine, tocainide, and lipid lowering agents.
Mean (SD) age at index date*77 (8.3)77 (8.0)
Sex (% male)6955
Use of drugs for cardiovascular disease or risk factors during the year before index date (%):
    Any8063
    Hypertension7557
        Beta-blockers116.6
        Other7455
    Angina3413
    Congestive heart failure (CHD)3116
    Other CHD drugs†7.84.4
    Diabetes167.8
Use of COPD medications during the year before index date (%):
    Inhaled β2 agonists4342
    Oral β2 agonists1110
    Nebulised β2 agonists139
    Xanthines3229
    Ipratropium bromide
    Oral corticosteroids1914
    Nasal corticosteroids3.44.6
    Inhaled corticosteroids2527