Table 1

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human emphysema

Author (ref)Emphysema detectionTest samplesObservationsComments
CT=computed tomographic scan of the chest; AM=alveolar macrophage; BAL=bronchoalveolar lavage; LVRS=lung volume reduction surgery
Finlay50CTAM mRNA and culture media↑ collagenase 1(MMP-1) ↑ gelatinase B (MMP-9)No increase in expression of macrophage elastase (MMP-12)
Finlay51CTBAL fluid↑ collagenase activity ↑ gelatinase B (MMP-9)MMPs probably neutrophil derived
Ohnishi41HistologyLung tissue from LVRS↑ MT-MMP-1 (MMP-14) ↑ gelatinase A (MMP-2)No increase in expression of macrophage elastase (MMP-12)
Betsuyaku33CTBAL fluid and AM culture media↑ collagenase 2 (MMP-8), ↑ gelatinase B (MMP-9)MMPs in BAL fluid from inflammatory cells; no ↑ gelatinase B (MMP-9) in AM culture media in emphysema
Segura-Valdez52HistologyLung tissue from autopsy and LVRS; BAL fluid↑ collagenases 1, 2, 3 (MMPs -1, -8, -13) ↑ gelatinases A, B (MMPs -2, -9)MMPs are expressed by both inflammatory cells and structural cells of the lung
Imai25HistologyLung tissue from lung transplant and LVRS↑ collagenase 1 (MMP-1)Collagenase expressed by type II cells. No increase in expression ofmacrophage elastase (MMP-12)
Minematsu40CTCellular DNA↑ gelatinase B (MMP-9) polymorphism in smokers with emphysemaThis polymorphism also associated with an increased incidence of coronary atherosclerosis