Table 5

Withdrawals/drop outs from studies

Eiser11 (a)4 withdrawals: 1 chest infection, 1 itching on diamorphine, 1 constipation on diamorphine, 1 headache due to cerebral metastases
Eiser11 (b)2 drop outs: 1 developed chest pain between 2 test days, 1 suffered deterioration in blood gases (unclear whether had received medication or placebo when this occurred)
Johnson121 drop out: developed chest infection and right heart failure on dihydrocodeine
Woodcock165 drop outs: nausea and vomiting on dihydrocodeine
Noseda243 drop outs: 3 patients died over the study period during the night (the authors did not consider their deaths to be related to the treatment)