Table 3

Examples of mouse models where overexpression of a protein leads to emphysema

MediatorPromotorLung pathologyMechanismReference
rtTa=reverse tetracycline transactivator; CC-10=Clara cell 10 kD promotor; SP-C=surfactant apoprotein C.
Interleukin 13CC10-rtTAEmphysema with enhanced lung volumes and compliance, mucus metaplasia, and inflammation• Increased MMP-2, -9, -12, -13, and -14 and cathepsins B, S, L, H, and K 49
• Treatment with MMP or cysteine proteinase antagonists significantly decreased the emphysema and inflammation but not the mucus
Interferon-γCC10-rtTAEmphysema with alveolar enlargement, enhanced lung volumes, enhanced pulmonary compliance• Increased macrophage and neutrophil in BAL fluid 48
• Decreased secretory leucoproteinase inhibitor
• Increased MMP-12, MMP-9, cathepsins B, H, D, S, and L
Human interstitial collagenase (MMP-1)HaptoglobulinDisruption of alveolar walls and coalescence of alveolar spaces• ? degradation of collagen by collagenase 50