Table 3

Importance of multiple risk factors

Risk factors:High risk surgery (includes intrathoracic)
Ischaemic heart disease
Congestive heart failure
Insulin dependent diabetes
Creatinine >177 μM/l
Number of factors3-150 Major cardiac complications3-160
11.1%
24.6%
⩾39.7%
  • 3-150 As intrathoracic surgery is classified as a risk factor, all patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer have at least one factor.

  • 3-160 Myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema, ventricular fibrillation or primary cardiac arrest, complete heart block.